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Welcome and Introductions

 Host agency welcomes participants and introduces workshop purpose and facilitators.

 Introductory go 'round and ice breaker.

 Facilitators provide overview of workshop process and content.

Participants' Expectations

 Discussion of participants' needs and expectations, focussing on what participants want to take back to their work environment; documentation for check-ups during workshop.

Participants' Expectations

 Present workshop objectives (clarify and adjust based on participant input prior to workshop). Examples include:

 To deepen understanding of how research and program evaluation findings can be used to improve the effectiveness of community traffic safety initiatives

 To identify ways to apply relevant behaviour change theories and concepts to community traffic safety programs

 To provide an overview of the future for traffic safety - new paradigms and their implications

 To introduce and apply Outcome Mapping, a planning and evaluation methodology

 Reach consensus on workshop agenda and mode of operation


This section of the workshop introduces the concept of cultural paradigms and the need for a new paradigm for traffic safety. It provides participants with an understanding of the "big picture" perspective on traffic safety and explains its importance to change "on the ground."

 There are no right or wrong answers

 A brief history of traffic safety

 Defining cultural paradigms and why a new paradigm for traffic safety is needed

 A new paradigm for traffic safety and traffic safety culture

 The implications for traffic safety programs at the community level and beyond

 Linking traffic safety culture, new paradigms and behaviour change



This section of the workshop introduces what we know about behaviour change and challenges us to think about how to use that knowledge. For example, the research tells us that:

  Programs are often ineffective in changing behaviour.

  Concepts commonly thought to mediate behaviour change, such as attitudes and awareness, do not.

  Programs are rarely replicated nor are their success factors identified for application in other contexts.

  Intervention programs are costly and we are not extracting, aggregating and applying the potential learning from these ongoing investments.

Using more effective approaches to traffic safety programs, we can:

  Look for mutually complementary approaches that can be used in combination.

  Identify what makes 'sense' in our working environments.

  Bring participants into program planning, design, implementation and evaluation activities.

  Think critically and act creatively to experiment and innovate.

  Develop strategies aimed at road users and also at the people and institutions which influence them.

Discussion to question and clarify in small "Buzz Groups": How do these ideas apply to your traffic safety initiatives?

Applying the Principles and Concepts of Behaviour Change to Community Traffic Safety Programs

Given that there is lots of room for improvement in designing, managing and learning from behaviour change programs, we look at the principles and theories of behaviour change, presenting some of the relevant theoretical concepts and frameworks, and assessing their application to changing traffic safety behaviours.

a. Defining Behaviour Change

Clarifying habitual behaviour, its causes and supports and defining behaviour change helps participants better understand its challenges. Short presentations and discussion cover the following topics:

Definition, understanding and significance of habitual behaviour; examination of what produces and supports habitual behaviour.

 Discussion of behaviours related to traffic safety, focussed specifically on behaviours relevant to participants.

 Definition and understanding of behaviour change with a focus on community traffic safety.

Discussion in "Buzz Groups": How does this information line up with your views on behaviour change? What can you add?

b. Behaviour Change Theories and Models - What Can We Learn?

New knowledge about key behaviour change theories and models helps participants better respond to the challenges in programs aimed at influencing traffic safety behaviours.

 Overview of theories of behaviour change, focussing on health and safety.

 Examine the relevance of theory for community traffic safety programs.

Discussion in "Buzz Groups": What do these theories and models suggest about the way you design and implement your programs?

c. Improving the Effectiveness of Behaviour Change Programs

With an understanding of the importance of theories and models, we can begin to identify the critical factors required for behaviour change programs to be effective.

 Identification of required conditions for effectiveness (critical success factors), based on behaviour change research and program experience.

Discussion in "Buzz Groups": Do the lessons from others' experiences apply to your work? What are your reactions to the critical success factors? What's missing?


A clear implication of the literature and experience on behaviour change is the need to differentiate the various actors at different system and community levels whose behaviours can greatly influence program effectiveness. To apply the critical success factors in our traffic safety programs, we must be clear on whose behaviours need influencing and, of those, which ones programs are going to try, directly and indirectly, to influence.

Whose behaviours can we change and how can we help create the conditions for sustained change in the behaviours of our target groups?

Identification of key actors: differentiating among target groups, and direct and indirect partners.

 Short presentation on the concepts of 'boundary partners' and 'strategic partners.'

 Working first individually, then in small groups we answer the question: If traffic safety behaviours were absolutely ideal in all respects, what would the picture look like? What would we see happening? Who would be doing what, when and with whom?

Groups then work on one particular boundary partner to create a list of 5-7 strategies that they would use to enable the program to influence or support that boundary partner to make the best possible contribution to the program's mission and vision.



This session introduces Outcome Mapping (OM), its key concepts and stages, and explains how it works. Outcome Mapping provides the link between what we know works and doesn't work in behaviour change programs, and how to apply this knowledge effectively.

Overview and Key Concepts

This section of the workshop introduces what we know about behaviour change and challenges us to think about how to use that knowledge. For example, the research tells us that:

  Overview: OM is a framework that provides an integrated and flexible structure for organizational and program planning, and focuses on one type of result - outcomes as behavioural change.

  Key Concepts (Examples)

  Focus is on intermediate behaviour change that must take place in order to create changes in "state" (i.e., fewer traffic deaths and injuries).

  Is participatory, actively engaging the program team in all stages, and emphasizing ownership of programs and results.

  Change is seen as incremental and cumulative.

  Aims to build capacity to initiate and maintain the ability to respond to ongoing change.

  The Three Stages of Outcome Mapping

  Intentional design (why, who, what)

  Outcome and performance management

  Evaluation planning

  How Outcome Mapping Works

  The methodology is embedded in the system - the how to's are explicit and integral to implementation.

  The process is bottom-up, engendering ownership and participation.

  Results are recognized to be an aggregate of multiple causes with contributions from multiple actors.

  It is progressive - it marks movement.

  OM helps programs examine the key issues and actors related to their mandates and expectations.

Learning to Use an Outcome Mapping Tool - Applying Behaviour Change Lessons to Traffic Safety Programs

This session provides hands-on experience using an OM tool in the context of traffic safety programs. Lessons from the behaviour change literature and knowledge base are drawn on to assist in applying behaviour change theories and concepts based on participant interests (identified prior to workshop).

Example of a Learning Exercise

Organizational Practices

  Exercise: Participants each develop a list of actions they could take in a traffic safety program to remain relevant, effective and viable in their respective contexts. The steps are: 1) individually formulate a set of practices (worksheet provided); 2) in small groups, share ideas; 3) in plenary, debrief the experience.

  Individually or in self-formed groups, participants apply the set of practices to their traffic safety work. Facilitators circulate and coach the work. Plenary 'check-ins' are used to stop action and take questions. If there is time, the tool applications are presented in plenary, or a short session is held in which participants discuss the utility of the tool for their work.



Review accomplishments of workshop; participants will be asked what they plan to do with what they have learned. Write themselves postcard reminders which are mailed two months later.


Participants will be asked to provide feedback on how well the workshop met their needs and expectations; and for suggestions for improvements.